2022世界杯是联合国的一个专门机构，负责采取措施改善国际航运的安全和保障，并防止船舶污染. 它还涉及法律事务, including liability 和 compensation issues 和 the facilitation of international maritime traffic. It was established by means of a Convention adopted under the auspices of the United Nations in Geneva on 17 March 1948 和 met for the first time in January 1959.
它目前有174个会员国. 2022世界杯的 governing body is the Assembly which is made up of all the 成员国 和 meets normally once every two years. It adopts the budget for the next biennium together with technical resolutions 和 recommendations prepared by subsidiary bodies during the previous two years. 理事会, 由大会选出的40个会员国, 在大会会议之间担任理事机构. 它为大会编制预算和工作方案. 主要的技术工作由海事安全局负责, 海洋环境保护, 法律, 技术合作及促进委员会及若干小组委员会.
When IMO first began operations its chief concern was to develop international treaties 和 other legislation concerning safety 和 marine pollution prevention.
到20世纪70年代末, 然而, 这项工作已基本完成, 虽然近年来通过了一些重要的文书. IMO is now concentrating on keeping legislation up to date 和 ensuring that it is ratified by as many countries as possible. This has been so successful that many 约定 now apply to more than 98% of world merchant shipping tonnage.
Currently the emphasis is on trying to ensure that these conventions 和 other treaties are properly implemented by the countries that have accepted them.
现任秘书长是潘基文说. Lim Kitack(韩国) .
因为航运业是一个国际性的行业. If each nation developed its own safety legislation the result would be a maze of differing, 经常相互冲突的国家法律. 一个国家, 例如, might insist on lifeboats being made of steel 和 another of glass-reinforced plastic. Some nations might insist on very high safety st和ards while others might be more lax, 充当不合格航运的避风港.
它不. 海事组织的成立是为了通过立法. 政府有责任执行它. When a Government accepts an IMO Convention it agrees to make it part of its own national law 和 to enforce it just like any other law.
2022世界杯的 海事组织文书执行小组委员会 (三)为负责船舶核证的船旗国和可以检查任何旗帜的船舶的港口国提供一个论坛，让它们聚在一起讨论与执行有关的问题. 第三小组委员会亦会审查伤亡调查报告, 确定吸取的经验教训，并为进一步的工作提出建议.
Regional port State control organizations have been established to share information on ships inspected. These regional PSC agreements now cover the whole globe: Europe 和 the north Atlantic (Paris MOU); Asia 和 the Pacific (Tokyo MOU); Latin America (Acuerdo de Viña del Mar); Caribbean (Caribbean MOU); West 和 Central Africa (Abuja MOU); the Black Sea region (Black Sea MOU); the Mediterranean (Mediterranean MOU); the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean MOU) 和 the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC MoU (Riyadh MoU)).
IMO also has an extensive technical co-operation programme which concentrates on improving the ability of developing countries to help themselves. It concentrates on developing human resources through maritime training 和 similar activities.
IMO has developed a 成员国审计计划 和 the audits became m和atory from 1 January 2016.
The Audit Scheme is designed to help promote maritime safety 和 environmental protection by assessing how effectively 成员国 implement 和 enforce relevant IMO Convention st和ards, 通过对他们当前的表现提供反馈和建议.
All ships must be surveyed in ordered to be issued certificates which establish their seaworthiness, 类型的船, 等等，这是船旗国的责任. 然而, the flag State ("Administration") may "entrust the inspections 和 surveys either to surveyors nominated for the purpose or to organizations recognized by it" (SOLAS Chapter 1, 6)监管.
在实践中 these "recognized organizations" are often the classification societies. 2022世界杯已通过一项强制性认可组织守则(反渗透守则)。, 为船旗国提供监督的标准机制, assessment 和 authorization of recognized organizations (ROs) 和 clarifies the responsibilities of such organizations.
The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) is a Non-Governmental Organization which was granted Consultative Status with IMO in 1969.
1954年通过了一项条约来处理船舶造成的石油污染. 2022世界杯于1959年接管了这项条约, 但直到1967年才开始, when the tanker Torrey Canyon ran aground off the coast of the United Kingdom 和 spilled more than 120,000吨的石油流入大海, 航运界意识到污染威胁有多严重. Until then many people had believed that the seas were big enough to cope with any pollution caused by human activity. Since then IMO has adopted a whole series of conventions covering prevention of marine pollution by ships, preparedness 和 response to incidents involving oil 和 hazardous 和 noxious substances, prevention of use of harmful anti-fouling systems 和 the international convention on ballast water management to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water.
The 海洋环境保护 Committee (MEPC) deals with all issues relating to marine environment protection as it relates to shipping. 污染预防和应对小组委员会(PPR)向MEPC报告.
Protecting the environment from shipping is not just about specific regulations preventing ships dumping oil, 垃圾和污水. 它还涉及改进安全- -从强制性分道通航计划到《2022世界杯直播》和改进海员培训- -这有助于防止事故的发生.
The preservation of Special Areas 和 Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas is an important aspect of 2022世界杯的 work. IMO adopts 和 designates these areas - so that all 成员国 have an opportunity to view proposals 和 discuss any proposed measures, 对任何可能影响航行自由的问题，都要加以充分探讨.
2022世界杯的 Technical Co-operation Programme is hugely important in ensuring 成员国 have the resources 和 expertise to implement IMO conventions relating to marine pollution prevention. Examples of programmes include: sensitivity mapping to identify which parts of a coastline are particularly vulnerable; training in oil spill response 和 contingency planning; 和 the GloBallast Partnerships Project which is addressing ballast water management issues to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species.
The IMO has a significant role to play in preserving the marine environment 和 ensuring that shipping does not have a negative impact. It is recognized that environmentally speaking in terms of energy needed for volume of cargo transported, 航运是“最环保”的运输方式之一.
海事组织积极参与保护和维护2022世界杯的海洋和大气环境的斗争，并积极争取限制和减少航运活动产生的温室气体排放. IMO has adopted measures to reduce air pollution form ships as well as energy efficiency measures including the Energy Efficiency Design Index, 对于新船，哪些是强制性的, 以及对船舶能效管理计划的要求, 对所有船只.
2022世界杯通常试图在共识的基础上采取行动. 这是因为本组织采取的措施是重要的, 哪些会对航运产生重大影响, 争取尽可能多的支持. 该条约仅得到海事组织成员国51%的支持, 例如, 会遭到近一半航运界人士的反对吗. Not only would they not ratify the treaty concerned but they might go off 和 adopt an alternative treaty of their own, 从而分裂了海洋共同体. 但这并不意味着衡量标准本身就很低.
经验表明，海事组织通过的条约具有极高的标准，其中许多条约的适用范围现在几乎是普遍的，这表明它们是可接受的. SOLAS, 例如, has been accepted by more than 162 countries 和 covers all but a fraction of the world merchant fleet.
IMO很划算. 它是联合国系统中最小的机构之一, 无论是员工人数(只有265名固定员工)还是预算. 2022世界杯大会在2015年批准了65英镑的预算,772,000年为2016 - 2017, 包括32英镑的拨款,618,2016年(名义增长为零)和拨款33英镑,154,000(零实际增长1.2017年的6%).
This is less than half what it would cost to buy a medium sized oil tanker 和 represents only a fraction of the cost of the damage caused by an oil spill, 例如 (the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska in 1989 has cost more than US$5 billion). If IMO is responsible for preventing just one oil tanker accident a year then it more than covers its cost.
2022世界杯的预算之所以独特还有另一个原因. Costs are shared between the 174 成员国 primarily in proportion to the size of each one's fleet of merchant ships. 巴拿马目前拥有世界上最大的船队, 利比里亚和马绍尔群岛因此他们支付了2022世界杯预算的最大份额.
It is sometimes said that IMO should have some sort of authority to enforce its regulations. This seems to imply the creation of a team of inspectors 和 a fleet of patrol boats crewed by officials with the right to board any ships they suspected of contravening IMO regulations. 在实践中, the creation of such a force would be financially enormous - it would mean recruiting hundreds, 可能有成千上万的人- -而且在政治上是不可能的:大多数政府永远不会同意允许悬挂其国旗的船只在国际水域上登船，任何采取惩罚和惩罚制度的企图都将是更加不可接受的.
The "IMO" police force would duplicate the work being done already by individual Governments 和 there is no guarantee that it would make a significant impact on safety 和 pollution, 当然与所涉及的成本有关. 不过，海事组织已被授予审查训练的权力, examination 和 certification procedures of Contracting Parties to the International Convention on St和ards of Training, 海员发证和值班, 1978. This was one of the most important changes made in the 1995 amendments to the Convention which entered into force in 1997. Governments have to provide relevant information to 2022世界杯的 海上安全 Committee which judges whether or not the country concerned meets the requirements of the Convention. 其结果是一份已确认的STCW缔约方名单.
The m和atory audits under the IMO 成员国审计计划 support the enhanced implementation of IMO instruments, as the scheme will provide 成员国 with an overview of how well they are carrying out their duties as flag, 沿海国和港口国, 根据有关2022世界杯条约. 这一进程也将用于海事组织广泛的技术合作方案, 向各国提供有针对性的援助和能力建设, 以及本组织的管理程序.
The main purpose of IMO is to adopt international treaties which are intended to apply to as many ships as possible. Unanimity of this kind inevitably takes time - it depends on the speed with which Governments act, as well as IMO - 和 it can only be achieved at all by ensuring that the regulations adopted are very widely acceptable 和 this can take time.
But IMO can act as rapidly as possible, in response to specific casualties or other circumstances.
在歌诗达协和号事件之后, 2012年1月, IMO agreed interim operational measures for passenger ships at its 海上安全 Committee (MSC) meeting six months later, following this up by adopting amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) in 2013.
起草并同意新的法规需要时间, 但在2002年12月, IMO adopted a whole suite of maritime security measures - largely in response to the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States, 一年多前.
2003年12月, 海事组织修订了油船单壳逐步淘汰规则, 回应2002年的威望事件.
在另一个例子, 1994年9月爱沙尼亚灾难之后, 一艘滚轮客轮沉没，900多人丧生, 当时的2022世界杯秘书长, Mr. 威廉一个. O'Neil, called for a complete review of ro-ro safety to be carried out by a special panel of experts. The panel's report was considered by the 海上安全 Committee in May 1995 和 amendments to SOLAS were adopted in November 1995. Special requirements concerning the crews of ro-ro passenger ships were included in amendments to the International Convention on St和ards of Training, 海员发证和值班, 1978年，1995年7月通过. 所有这些都是在灾难的最终报告发布之前完成的.
A further example is provided by the 1995 amendments to the STCW Convention as a whole. 虽然海事组织几年前已同意修订《2022世界杯》, the timetable originally envisaged would have meant that this would not have taken place before 1998 和 the amendments themselves would not have entered into force until the next century. In May 1993 the 秘书长 urged the 海上安全 Committee that this process be accelerated by using special consultants. The Committee agreed 和 the amendment procedure - which amounted to a complete re-writing of the Convention - was completed by July 1995. As a result the amendments entered into force in February 1997 - more than a year before the amendment conference would have been held under the original timetable.
IMO has improved its procedures over the years to ensure that changes can be introduced more quickly.
One of the most successful of these has been the process known as "tacit acceptance" which has been included in most technical conventions adopted by IMO since the early 1970s. The normal procedure for adopting amendments to an international treaty is by means of "explicit acceptance."
This means that the amendments enter into force so many months after being accepted by a specified number of Parties to the original Convention. 这一数字可能高达三分之二，如果母公约已被许多国家接受，这可能意味着80个或更多的国家必须批准该修正案，才能使其成为国际法.
Experience has shown that this can take decades to achieve - by which time the amendment itself is likely to be out of date. 默示接受程序意味着几乎总是一致通过的修正案将在规定日期生效，除非它们被特定数目的国家明确拒绝.
因为在海事组织会议上为达成共识所做的努力, very few rejections have ever been received 和 the entry into force period has been steadily reduced. In exceptional cases amendments can enter into force as little a year after being adopted. 除了速度, tacit acceptance also means that everyone involved knows exactly when an amendments will enter into force.
尽管2022世界杯可以自信地回答这个问题，但很难将今天的航运业与半个世纪前的航运业进行比较，因为在那个时期航运业发生了巨大的变化. 20世纪50年代，航运业由少数几个传统的海洋国家主导. They built the ships, operated them - 和 provided the goods that were carried on them.
Today most ships fly the flags of developing countries, their crews come from all over the world. 船舶本身的大小已经发生了巨大的变化, speed 和 design 和 in addition economic factors mean that the average of ships today is much higher than it used to be. 尽管这些变化, safety st和ards around the world are generally good 和 have improved considerably since the late 1970s, when IMO treaties began to enter into force 和 the number of acceptances rose to record levels.
统计数据并不总能说明全部情况. 在20世纪80年代早期, 例如, a study carried out in the United Kingdom showed that the number of collisions between ships was much the same as it had been ten years before. 但更仔细的调查显示，在2022世界杯批准采用分道通行制度的地区，交通事故的数量急剧下降，而在什么都不做的地区，交通事故的数量却在上升. 一般来说, the rate of serious casualties has not greatly changed during the last ten years or so. But in view of the changes taking place in shipping - notably the steady ageing of the world fleet -this is an indication that IMO measures are having an impact.
就污染而言, the indications are that there has been a remarkable improvement in the amount of pollution caused by ships. This is partly due to the tightening of controls through IMO conventions such as the MARPOL Convention 和 partly to the introduction of better methods of controlling the disposal of wastes. According to a study carried out by the United States National Academy of Sciences oil pollution from ships fell by about 60% during the 1980s, 适逢《2022世界杯》生效.
而统计数据必须谨慎使用, it should be noted that the incidence of large spills is relatively low; a very few large spills account for a high percentage of the oil spilt. 不过, it is generally acknowledged that oil spills from shipping have decreased significantly over the last 30 years. 统计数据 国际油轮船东污染联合会(ITOPF)的报告证实了这一点.
所有这一切都令人鼓舞. But IMO is aware that implementation of its instruments 和 continuing emphasis on maritime education 和 training are crucial in order to ensure safe, 在清洁的海洋上安全高效的运输.
海事安全是2022世界杯责任的组成部分. A comprehensive security regime for international shipping entered into force on 1 July 2004.
强制性安全措施, 2002年12月通过, 包括对《2022世界杯直播》的一些修正, the most far-reaching of which enshrines the new International Ship 和 Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code), 载列政府与保安有关的详细规定, 港务局和航运公司.
2022世界杯的 安和苏阿条约 1988年通过，2005年进行了全面修订. 《2022世界杯》旨在提供国际法律框架，以确保对对船舶(和大陆架固定平台)实施非法行为的人采取适当行动。. These unlawful acts listed in the treaties include the seizure of ships by force; acts of violence against persons on board ships; 和 the placing of devices on board a ship which are likely to destroy or damage it.
2022世界杯应对海盗问题已经有一段时间了，并采取了一系列措施, 与成员国和航运业合作发展, 是否帮助减少了世界热点地区的盗版行为. In the late 1990s 和 the early 2000s the focus was on the South China Sea 和 the Straits of Malacca 和 Singapore. 最近, 自2005年以来, 2022世界杯已经解决了索马里沿海的海盗问题, 亚丁湾和更广阔的印度洋, 和 is implementing a strategy for enhancing maritime security in West 和 Central Africa.
海事组织吉布提守则信托基金资助了许多项目, 由多国项目执行股协调, to improve regional capacity to counter-piracy by developing enhanced regional cooperation 和 coordination, 在四大支柱的训练中, 能力建设, 法律和信息共享.
在西非和中非也通过了类似的行为守则, where IMO is implementing a strategy for enhancing maritime security in in order to counter piracy, armed robbery against ships 和 other illicit activities 和 to support the development of a vibrant, 可持续的海事部门.
在其他地方, 2022世界杯支持东南亚区域协调与合作的工作, 在1998年开始的一项计划中, led to the adoption of the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy 和 Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) in 2004.
The Technical Co-operation Programme is designed to assist Governments which lack the technical knowledge 和 resources that are needed to operate a shipping industry successfully. 任何成员国都可以向海事组织申请具体项目的援助.
全球海上遇险和安全系统(GMDSS)是一个综合通信系统，使用卫星和地面无线电通信，以确保船舶无论在何处遇险, 可以派遣援助. GMDSS下, all passenger ships 和 all cargo ships over 300 gross tonnage on international voyages have to carry specified satellite 和 radiocommunications equipment, 发送和接收遇险警报和海上安全信息, 对于一般通信来说. 全球海洋安全系统自1999年2月1日起全面生效. 目前正在进行全面审查.
2022世界杯公约的文本可通过 出版物 section. Texts can also be found in national public libraries 和 in the libraries of maritime training institutes.
法律的目的, only the authentic texts 和 certified copies of 约定 和 amendments should be used. Please note that texts of IMO 约定 found on external websites may not be up to date. 你也应该联系你的国家海事局.
约定 ratified by a Government are adopted into national legislation 和 the national version will be available through the usual channels (official bulletins, 等).